Atlas of livestock parasites
digitized collection of microscopical preparations

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Paramphistomum spp.



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"rumen fluke"

Distribution: worldwide in standing water and troughs.

Host: Adult flukes in rumen, immature flukes in small intestine of cattle, sheep, other ruminants, and camelids. 

Life Cycle:
Indirect life cycle with development in a snail. Immature forms leave the snail and encyst on herbage. Ingestion by cattle results in hatching in the small intestine. The immature adults then attach to the intestinal lining for 6 to 8 weeks, causing inflammation and destruction. Thereafter they migrate to the rumen, where they attach as adults and begin to lay eggs. The prepatent period is about 3 to 4 months.

Diagnosis: Clinical signs, previous cases of paramphistomosis in the area, and the presence of immature paramphistomes in the diarrheic feces. Mature are conical,pear-shaped fluke, 5-13 mm long and 2-5 mm wide; light red color. Large numbers of eggs, similar to Fasciola, may also indicate paramphistomosis.They are best recovered using a sedimentation procedure, but examination of fecal material will not detect immature fukes, which are the most pathogenic stage of infection.

Size: Approximately 114–175 × 65–100 µm, depending on species, operculum on one pole, pale grey to greenish colour.

Clinical features: Severe diarrhea and weakness may lead to death. Immature flukes burrow into the lining of the small intestine, ingesting cells and causing tissue death and hemorrhage. Extensive diarrhea, weakness, and death may result. Inflammation occurs with the destruction of intestinal glands and degeneration of associated lymph nodes. 

Improve drainage of wet pastures, or fence cattle away from them.   


Paramphistomum egg
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