Atlas of livestock parasites
digitized collection of microscopical preparations

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Dictyocaulus spp.



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Nematode (order Strongylida)


Species include D. viviparus (cattle, camelids),  D. flaria (sheep, goat, camel), D. cameli (camel).            

Distribution: Worldwide.   

Host: Trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.     

Life Cycle: First-stage larvae are passed in the feces of the host. Infective third-stage larvae  develop on pasture and are ingested during grazing. Larvae migrate from the intestine to the respiratory tract and become mature.           

Diagnosis: The Baermann test is used to detect frst-stage larvae in fresh feces. Some larvated eggs may also be present in fresh feces.    

Size: 300–360µm  D. viviparus   

Size. 550–580µm  D. flaria     

Clinical features: Heavy infections may cause severe respiratory signs, especially in cattle. Disease is usually seen in young animals before immunity develops.    


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