Atlas of livestock parasites
digitized collection of microscopical preparations

Atlas of Parasites Contents Information sources Glossary Administration

Strongylid Parasites of Ruminants and Camelids



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Nematodes (order Strongylida).       

"stomach worm, barber pole worm, hookworm, nodular worm, strongyles, trichostrongyles"     

Numerous genera belong to this group, including  Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Mecistocirrus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Chabertia, Camelostrongylus, and Lamanema.      

Distribution: Worldwide.   

Host: Gastrointestinal tract of ruminant and camelid hosts. The genera infecting these  hosts are largely the same, although species may vary. 

Life Cycle: Adult worms in the gastrointestinal tract produce eggs that develop in manure in the  environment. Infective larvae are released onto pasture, where they infect grazing hosts.      

Diagnosis: Eggs are detected by routine or quantitative fecal fotation procedures. Eggs are similar in appearance and are not easily identifed specifcally. For diagnosis of genera,  culture of feces and identifcation of infective third-stage larvae are performed. Quantitative egg counts are useful in designing and evaluating parasite control programs.        

Size: Approximately 65–100 × 34–50 µm, depending on species   ¨

Clinical features: Virtually all grazing animals are infected with strongylid parasites, and  many infections are asymptomatic. Young, nonimmune animals are most susceptible to subclinical  and clinical disease, which may include diarrhea, anemia, hypoproteinemia, reduced growth, and  death in severe cases. The species of greatest importance vary with host and region.


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