Atlas of livestock parasites
digitized collection of microscopical preparations

Atlas of Parasites Contents Information sources Glossary Administration

Trypanosoma evansi (camel)



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Trypanosoma evansi is believed to have been introduced into South East Asia in livestock imported from India. The disease „Surra“ was first reported in Indonesia (1897), when a group of horses on Java was found to be infected, with further outbreaks being reported in buffalo and cattle in East Java. Attempts were made to control the spread of the disease. These included isolation and slaughter of infected animals and lighting bonfires to drive away the flies which, even at that time, were thought to be associated with the disease. These efforts were ineffective and a decade later surra was reported to be enzootic throughout the low lying plains of Java (1917).

Extensive movements of livestock within Java and between the islands of the archipelago have sustained the continuing dissemination of T. evansi whilst the abundance of haematophagous flies probably facilitated transmission to susceptible hosts when infected animals were moved into disease free areas. Since the first report of surra, outbreaks of the disease have been recorded in many different areas of the country and the parasite is probably present on most of the major islands of the archipelago. Recently serological studies have confirmed the widespread endemicity of T. evansi throughout Indonesia (1991).

Camel trypanosomosis was firstly identified in the Sudan from donkeys, mules and camels as early as 1904 (Balfour, 1904) and known locally as “Guffar” (Karib, 1961). All camels regardless of age, type or sex are susceptible to T. evansi infection.  The country both acute and chronic forms of the disease occur. Pictures:

Trypanosoma spp.
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