Atlas of livestock parasites
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Straelensia cynotis



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Canine straelensiosis is a rare, noncontagious, sporadic, but potentially emerging parasitic dermatitis caused by the temporary encystment in the epidermis of the parasitic larval stage of Straelensia cynotis. This mite belongs to a family close to the family Trombiculidae. To date, the life cycle is largely unknown and the disease has been reported only in France, Portugal, Spain, and Italy. Transmission occurs mainly in rural and small-sized hunting dogs, probably through contact with contaminated soil, litter, and other terrestrial habitat of foxes. No contagion has been reported to congeners and humans. S cynotis has distinct differences from other trombidioid mites, especially in clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and response to treatment.


Straelensiosis is sudden in onset and may be accompanied by systemic signs such as anorexia and prostration. Lesions are painful, variably pruritic, and either generalized or multifocal, most often affecting the dorsal regions of the head and trunk. The characteristic erythematous papules and nodules resemble small craters. Scaling, pustules, and crusts can be observed.


Differential diagnoses include bacterial folliculitis, sarcoptic mange, and gunshot. Microscopic examination of samples obtained from deep skin scrapings may aid in identification of the larvae (0.7 mm long, 0.45 mm wide), each in a thick-walled cyst. The larvae, which resemble Neotrombicula, are more easily visualized by histopathology.


The prognosis is favorable; a self cure generally occurs after several months if reinfestation is prevented. However, management of clinical signs is difficult. Amitraz may be somewhat effective.


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